Saturday, March 14, 2020

20 Poetic Metaphors About Time

20 Poetic Metaphors About Time According to proverbs, time heals, steals, and flies. In that same vein, time is also something we all make and take, save and spend, keep, waste, kill, and lose. Habitually and almost without thinking, we explain our relationship to time through metaphors. In ​More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor (University of Chicago Press, 1989), George Lakoff and Mark Turner remind us that Metaphor isnt just for poets; its in ordinary language and is the principal way we have of conceptualizing abstract concepts like life, death, and time. So whether were spending it or running out of it (or both), we deal with time metaphorically. 20 Metaphorical Quotes About the Definition of Time Time is a circus, always packing up and moving away. - Ben Hecht Time, you old gipsy man,Will you not stay,Put up your caravanJust for one day? - Ralph Hodgson, Time, You Old Gipsy Man Prince, I warn you, under the rose,Time is the thief you cannot banish.These are my daughters, I suppose.But where in the world did the children vanish? - Phyllis McGinley, Ballade of Lost Objects But thats where I am, theres no escaping it. Times a trap, Im caught in it. - Margaret Atwood, The Handmaids Tale Time is the reef upon which all our frail mystic ships are wrecked. - Noel Coward, Blithe Spirit She tried to discover what kind of woof Old Time, that greatest and longest established Spinner of all, would weave from the threads he had already spun into a woman. But his factory is a secret place, his work is noiseless, and his Hands are mutes. - Charles Dickens, Hard Times Time is a storm in which we are all lost. Only inside the convolutions of the storm itself shall we find our directions. - William Carlos Williams, Introduction to Selected Essays Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in. I drink at it; but while I drink I see the sandy bottom and detect how shallow it is. Its thin current slides away, but eternity remains. - Henry David Thoreau, Walden Time is a flowing river. Happy those who allow themselves to be carried, unresisting, with the current. They float through easy days. They live, unquestioning, in the moment. - Christopher Morley, Where the Blue Begins Time is an equal opportunity employer. Each human being has exactly the same number of hours and minutes every day. Rich people cant buy more hours; scientists cant invent new minutes. And you cant save time to spend it on another day. Even so, time is amazingly fair and forgiving. No matter how much time youve wasted in the past, you still have an entire tomorrow. - Denis Waitely,  The Joy of Working Old Time, in whose banks we deposit our notesIs a miser who always wants guineas for groats;He keeps all his customers still in arrearsBy lending them minutes and charging them years. - Oliver Wendell Holmes, Our Banker Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have, and only you can determine how it will be spent. Be careful lest you let other people spend it for you. - Carl Sandburg Yesterday is a canceled check; tomorrow is a promissory note; today is the only cash you have, so spend it wisely. - Kay Lyons Time is a fixed income and, as with any income, the real problem facing most of us is how to live successfully within our daily allotment. - Margaret B. Johnstone What am I now that I was then?May memory restore again and againThe smallest color of the smallest day:Time is the school in which we learn,Time is the fire in which we burn. - Delmore Schwartz, Calmly We Walk Through This Aprils Day Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations. - Faith Baldwin, Face Toward the Spring Initially, I was unaware that time, so boundless at first blush, was a prison. - Vladimir Nabokov, Speak, Memory Time is an irreversible arrow, and we can never return to the self that we sloughed off in childhood or adolescence. The man trying to wear youths carefree clothing, the woman costuming her emotions in dolls dresses - these are pathetic figures who want to reverse times arrow. - Joshua Loth Liebman, Renunciation of Immaturity,  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹from Peace of Mind Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils. - Hector Berlioz Time is a gift, given to you,given to give you the time you needthe time you need to have the time of your life. - Norton Juster, The Phantom Tollbooth

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

LASAApplying Cultural Theoretical Approaches Coursework

LASAApplying Cultural Theoretical Approaches - Coursework Example Stable countries have more elites hence an expanded consumer pool than unstable ones. Governments oriented to upgrading the lives of their citizens create business environments in which foreign investors can venture into hence building the economy. It is evident that the best economies reside in countries with good governance and democracy (Hwang, Seiler & Seiler, 2005). The legal framework of a country determines its position economically. Rigid retrogressive legal frameworks derail investments and deprive a country of economic growth. States with suitable legal frameworks benefit from revenue generation from investment and realize better economic growth. The flexibility of the social and cultural trends of a given population determines the ease of setting up investment projects within the population. Some cultures are so primitive and cannot fit in the contemporary economic competition. For instance, a culture that prohibits education of one gender is retrogressive and fails to discover the potential of education for all. Such populations remain economically poor while those accepting change enjoy massive economic gains (Telycote, 2008). Some economies are more endowed than others through various ways. Developed nations are endowed with fine technologies, better infrastructures, and education while less developed ones lack or enjoy limited of these. Others are endowed with huge riches in minerals and agriculture. Such endowed economies enjoy better economies while the rest languishes in poverty. Technological advancement is another aspect of the global economy of today. Developed countries possess fine technologies useful in driving their economies forward. Such countries are making huge revenues from such technologies, and they are also able to solve various economic challenges. In the last decade, global warming has been the topic with several catastrophic effects felt on several

Monday, February 10, 2020

Is Justice Scalia Wise Enough in His Supreme Court Rulings Research Paper

Is Justice Scalia Wise Enough in His Supreme Court Rulings - Research Paper Example The jurist is a fervent champion of the authority of the executive arm of government; he believes that the original ideology of the authors of the American constitution was to establish and protect a powerful presidency to ensure stability of the nation. In his rulings the judge rejects double standards in the application of the law such as policies aimed to empower minority groups. Talbot (43) avers that Scalia often files separate minority verdicts in which he criticizes the majority decision. This paper explores the philosophies of Justice Scalia as evident in some of the Supreme Court rulings he has made on discrimination and criminal procedure. Justice Scalia is widely described as a conservative figure on the bench, implying that he offers the Constitutional interpretation in letter and spirit of its key architects of the eighteenth century (Bramwell 370-375). In his rulings, the justice captures the philosophies that inspired the Amendment to the Constitution. Scalia believes various constitutional changes to the US laws should be interpreted with respect to their essence at the period of amendment. Nevertheless, the justice is at pains to explain his judicial approach relative to the verdict of Brown v. Board of Education of 1954, which declared segregated learning facilities illegal. The ruling also cited the Fourteenth Amendment, which the justice interprets otherwise, as a deciding factor in the case. The enactment of the Amendment contradicts Scalia’s observations as it allowed corporations some rights under the constitution (Niose 16-21). It is arguable that the architects of the Fourteenth Amendment wanted to enhance school segregation. Scalia however, says he would have rejected school segregation in America, an opinion which is driven by the need for a real united America. According to Scalia and Ring, the justice enthusiastically rejects the notion of an evolving society guided by an â€Å"adjusting† set of laws (9-11). Scaliaâ₠¬â„¢s ideology implies that it is beyond the mandate of the court to adapt the constitutional interpretation. The justice sounds an alarm that if Americans accepted the fact that constitutionalism should be modified to suit an evolving society, the dangers of evaluating changing standards may be tantamount to believing that the evolution has boiled down into one's personal opinion. Nevertheless, by comparing the Constitution with original statutes, which should be bequeathed future generations in its letter and spirit, the philosophies advanced by the justice may fail to enable the modern American society to manage new cultural trends, some of which may be good and promote peace and stability in the world (Lakin 47). Additionally, due to the fact that laws are crafted to serve justice, the evolution of the values of the American society may turn the people into â€Å"slaves† of their forefathers’ ideologies if Scalia’s philosophies are anything to go by. Plainti ff has an upper hand Scalia’s philosophy on criminal procedures is largely in favor of the plaintiff. For instance, he rejected the Court's landmark ruling in Miranda v. Arizona, which offered guidelines on the treatment of criminal suspects. The ruling held that a testimony by a suspect in police custody who is ignorant of his rights was unconstitutional. Scalia’s verdict to judicially review Miranda in the Dickerson v. United States case of 2000 hit a snag, when he found himself in the minority,

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Uses For Polymers - my bullet proof vest design Essay Example for Free

Uses For Polymers my bullet proof vest design Essay Greetings. My name is Paulos Zerezghi and I have now invented a feature which may change the world. I have been inspired to create this due to all the wars and crimes in our world today. My creation is Full Bullet-Proof Clothing. I have combined casual clothing which may be also used for the military. This is an original idea which has not been created. This Bullet-Proof clothing would be fully-compatible for police, security and military and also ordinary citizens who may be in need of secured clothing for safety reasons. My revolutionary invention will be named Block-Tex or scientific name Block-Tex Chloride. The chloride from my invention, is formed when the element chlorine – a halogen picks up one electron to form an anion. My creation has upgraded the classic ‘bulletproof vest’ which has been worn by different forms of security at the moment. I believe that this soon will not be the case. The full Block-Tex jacket is super-light weighing at only 115g allowing people to run and walk easier which may be very useful for police and the military. Also, Block-Tex clothing will provide tough material to prevent bullets penetrating through. Amazingly, Block-Tex even prevents blades piercing through and shrapnel from explosions. Manufacturing Block-Tex Chloride is synthesized in solution from the monomers 1,4-phenylene-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) and terephthaloyl chloride in a condensation reaction yielding hydrochloric acid as a by product. The result has liquid-crystalline behaviour, and mechanical drawing orients the polymer chains in the fibres direction. Cracking will be featured in the creation of Block-Tex so it can break down molecules that are complex. Heavy hydrocarbons may also be broken down into simpler molecules by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. The polymer will not be created to be monounsaturated because that may mean that only one double bond in the whole hydrocarbon will be able which wouldn’t work as this invention would need more than one. The plastic will be unsaturated which means that they would be more than one double bond featured in the hydrocarbon. Alkenes will be featured in my invention, in most of the hydrocarbons; causing the product to be stronger, tougher and more resistant to bullets and shrapnel. But In some of the hydrocarbons, monomers will feature alkane so that the vest is flexibleand lightweight making my invention one of a kind. Cross-links will also be featured to create my product. Cross-links will allow the material to be hard and stiff (making it harder for bullets to penetrate), making it not flappy and soft similar to natural rubber. Using cross-links will make us use vulcanisation which can be used to make car tyres from natural rubber. After testing, I can announce that Block-Tex has been developed to be resistant to heat (thermosetting). This may be useful as Block-Tex is able to withstand heat from explosions. Characteristics of Product My product features fabulous characteristics. The polymer features variety of colours and also alters Block-Tex to camouflage with the environment. This allows the product to not be obvious to see. The product’s camouflage ability is created so that enemies or criminals will not be able to recognise whether there wearing a bulletproof vest/clothing or not. This is definitely a huge requirement for militaries and armies throughout the world. Another characteristic that Block-Tex has is that it’s lightweight – this feature allows soldiers, police etc. to run fast and long distances without problems what so ever. Also, due to Block-Tex’s casual availability, it can be easier worn anywhere and everywhere without the need of support. To continue, my product is efficient as it is biodegradable. The meaning of the term, biodegradable, is that when the polymer finally becomes of no use, it can be broken down and completely dissolved and destroyed. This is a good quality of my polymer and helps the environment unlike supermarket bags which takes hundreds of years to break down and destroy. Uses of Block-Tex Block-Tex may have many difference uses. It may be to be safe warzones. Personally, I believe that crime is a factor that you can be safe from. In many areas around the world like Columbia and Iran where gun crime could be featured in their daily basis. Block-Tex can prevent gun crime as my product is strong enough to thwart a 50-calibre magnum to a SPAS-12 shotgun and even a thrown butterfly knife to the torso. Block-Tex can support soldiers in warzone countries like Afghanistan and Somalia where landmines are placed and gunshots are fired. Block-Tex may not fully support soldiers from a mine, but gives them a higher chance of survival. My product can save lives, so why wouldn’t you buy it? The meaning of the term, biodegradable, is that when the product finally becomes of no use, it can be broken down and completely dissolved and destroyed. Block-Tex have accomplished this and is fully biodegradable. Block-Tex is the first and only product to provide bulletproof vest/clothing that can be resistant to bullets, blades and shrapnel plus keep the product strong with it being biodegradable at the same time. Large supermarket companies like ASDA and Tesco don’t sell/use biodegradable plastic bags. Tesco and ASDA shopping bags are not environmental-friendly and take hundreds of years to degrade and destroy. Tesco and ASDA however buy these bags as they buy in a large scale and those bags are cheap. Biodegradable plastic bags are expensive. We have put the effort to make Block-Tex biodegradable, whatever the cost. When the product is broken down, it goes into smaller and simpler compounds such as water and carbon dioxide. Toxicity Block-Tex is fully non-toxic unless some bulletproof vests in the market today. My product is safe with a percentage of 0% toxicity. Block-Tex would not alter any devices placed next to it. Unlike oil, Block-Tex is designed not to be toxic which allows it not to harm animals and sea-animals. Unfortunately, Block-Tex Chloride is being tested on pigs, rats and mice which all have similar systems to humans. Our experiments however, are designed not to harm them severely. The fibres used to create Block-Tex may be toxic when broken down. If the toxic fibres enter your skin, it may cause irritation and minor scratching, but does not trigger allergic reactions or create allergic reactions. From the knowledge of experimenting on mice, Block-Tex has been proven to be non-toxic when swallowed. However, dust from the product may be harmful for those who suffer asthma (if swallowed) as it may trigger it and cause allergies. Oil Loss? Block-Tex are thinking of possible solutions for when oil reserves run out. When oil does run out, it will for sure effect our business hard as crude oil is a major factor for manufacturing this product. The polymer is alternated and synthesized. Crude oil is the beginning of the creation of Block-Tex and the ‘spring’ of where requirements are found. Hydrocarbons are featured in crude oil, which is the vast reason why crude oil is used. Crude Oil is found in the ground where it is tunnelled and mined out. It is major use of our technology today. However, many sources have found that crude oil will finish in less than a dozen years due to our overuse. This will be a major setback and will force us to use alternatives. Nuclear power may be an alternative in the near future due to it’s reliability, efficiency and environmental-friendly factors. However, there are weaknesses. Nuclear waste would be a problem as it is unknown what to do with it and power stations of nuclear are expensive to build, not fitting most countries budget.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Rules Of Life: Epictetus View Essay -- essays research papers

The Rules of Life: Epictetus’ View   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As rational beings, we can become conscious of the law that guides all things. Virtue consists in conscious agreement with the inevitable order of things. According to Epictetus’ The Enchiridion, one acts with the virtues of Stoicism: human imperfection, prudence, temperance, and courage. We can relate what Epictetus is saying to our own lives. It appears that some comfort comes in knowing that one has no control over the predetermined.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Epictetus represents a myriad of concepts. One concept of which being that one should live with the awareness of human imperfection and finitude. He expresses the sentiment that one is able to relinquish the feelings of disrespect and desire by allowing all that is ill-fated to appear before one’s eyes each day. Epictetus states, â€Å"Let death and exile and everything that is terrible appear before your eyes every day, especially death; and you will never have anything contemptible in your thoughts or crave anything excessively† (XXI). It is important that we are attentive to the fact that there is much unhappiness and despair in this world. If we do not expose ourselves to such matters, these things will consume us.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Epictetus also conveys that prudence is key. It is important to look at all the things that surround one’s dealings. If these things are not rendered, the outcome will cause one to disgracefully discontinue that which he is doing. One must recognize what it is that he is getting into before actually partaking in it. Epictetus states it clearly: For each action, consider what leads up to it and what follows it, and approach it in the light of that. Otherwise you will come to it enthusiastically at first, since you have not borne in mind any of what will happen next, but later when difficulties turn up you will give it up disgracefully†¦You must either work on your ruling principle, or work on externals, practice the art either of what is inside or of what is outside, that is, play the role either of a philosopher or of a non-philosopher. (XXIX) The example of an athlete is adapted to clarify this belief. If one wants to be a star athlete, then it is important for one to train properly and work hard before the event. Supposing that one does not prepare for the event, then the expectation sh... ...meone else nor himself† (V). This is, perhaps, one of Epictetus’ most influential ideas. As this is clearly something that those in today’s society can relate and utilize from day to day. Epictetus shows us many instrumental concepts in The Enchiridion. He believes that there is a law that guides all things and that virtue consists in the imminent order of things. Human imperfection and the idea of limit is a realization that many have yet to come to. In addition, caution is valuable when setting out to achieve a goal. It is important to look at all factors before jumping into something that could end up causing one pain and frustration in the end. One must convey a sense of self-control at all times. Epictetus gives us insight on how to live a frugal life. Finally, men are disturbed not by occurrences, but by the views which they take of these happenings. The man of great intelligence accuses neither himself nor another when something goes poorly in his life. As we have seen, it is easy for one to relate Epictetus’ beliefs to his own life in today’s society. It is an amazing feat for Epictetus to have written The Enchiridion so long ago, and for it to a pply to our current world.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Persuasive Speech on Social Networking Essay

Since the Internet has rapidly propagated, social media has progressed rapidly. The widespread use of mobile devices to access the internet gradually transformed the nature of our social interactions. Most people use smart phones, iPhone or mobile internet devices to easily access social network. Since the function that people can interact online through social media, chat or share information with each other. It helps us contact friends, family, and other people even if they live far away. The service they can receive by using it are very impressive, most of people have their own account for participating. Although social media leads people to have more interaction and promotes long-distance relationships, it has a lot of bad things that make us out of control. see more:social networks and our young generation. Many of social media users are addicted and they became more isolated by using social media. Social media has many advantages; nevertheless, it can be abused in moments by young children if we are not careful, because they can easily access social media. We need to understand and regulate the use of social media by young children. My own view is that we should understand and regulating the use of social media by young children, because overusing social media can create strong addictions, develop mental or physical disorders, and waste our time. First of all, social media, such as Facebook, are very addictive. Especially, people who are lonely can become easily addicts. Human is social animal, so they want to make relationship with others. People would say drug or alcohol is more addictive and harmful for children than social media; social media addiction is not a big problem. Unfortunately, it is not true. Social media can lead to compulsive behavior. A report of the social media addiction by University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business says: â€Å"There is evidence to show as well that social behaviors like hugs and smiles are associated with dopamine release †¦ it’s possible that social media is pleasurable and becomes addictive via the dopamine mechanism just as drugs or alcohol can.† In the light of these facts, surely social media can make addicts, and it is hard to escape. The problem is most people who have an addiction to social media and do not even realize it. Children, also, can easily get mental and physical disorders through using social media. People might think social media does not contribute to disorders. They argue that social media is good for mental diseases because it help them express their  feelings or thought easily. Also, through social media, they can be more connected with each other. However, as stated above, if children become addicts, naturally we could think they have emotional instability. Social media offers limited real interaction, through online contact. On the Mental Health Blog, psychologist, Aric Sigman claimed â€Å"Spending too much time online could lead to social isolation, loneliness and a negative outlook. These types of psychological symptoms could eventually lead to more serious health concerns, such as heart disease, cancer and dementia. (Sigman)† Using social media disturbs make deep relationship with others. When they are using social media they do not need to move or be active. As a result, it leads to mental and physical disorders. Social media can become handicap in our life. In this sense, social media can hinder people to improve their talents. People think social media is good place to show their talents or works what they did. For example, they argue people can share video clip what they playing the instruments or dancing or singing. However, if you are not good at those things and if you spend time to do social media, it would be hard to improve your talents. Using social media steals your time what really want to do. If you do not pay attention, your time would go very fast, and it could not be returned. If you read books, or study, exercise, or practice something that you want to do instead of using social media, it would be much better for you and your future life. I conducted surveys about relationships between using social media and studying last semester. Most students answered using social media is not helpful for studying. Also, students who got good grades spent just a little time to use social media. These results can be adjusted to young children because they are more easily influenced by social media. Especially, the young generation and children are easy to be exposed to environments which using social media. Social media are favorite not only along with teens or youngsters; it is growing among working people and also adults. Social media is regarded as an addiction and many people are becoming addicts every day. It can occur mentally and physically and make  you waste time. As you can see, we need to understand and regulate the use of social media by young children. The most famous social networks, YouTube, Facebook and Skype are included. It is important to know why people have to use social media carefully and need some restrictions when using it. Many people love social media because of its wide connectivity and functions that people can receive it for free; it does not require money to make an account and use it. Facebook is the most visible among various social media. First thing that people get impressed is, Facebook makes possible to create a deep networking between users. Since each user has a right to accept or refuse the friend request, the interest by people is high enough. Moreover people tend to allow the other’s friend request who have same thoughts and characteristics, by this reason it is able to maintain an intimate relationship. Not only users can leave comment on other’s post and the other user reply to that comment, by doing this continuing communication can be accomplished. So, it is a same response of users that deep networking can be made naturally. The second benefit is, it is good in long distance relationship. The survey from the â€Å"Telegraph† which is a famous newspaper in United Kingdom, tells that Social networks such as Facebook are helping to inspire a boom in long distance relationships. The number of people who have a partner that lives mor e than two hours away increased about twice in the last 10years. Three quarters of them say that by using social network such as Facebook and MySpace where everything can be shared, they were able to maintain their long-distance relationship. In my case, I am not living with my family. I live in Utah and my family live in Korea. It is hard to contact each other and I cannot know what my family is doing their country and also they do not know what I am doing in this country. But after we started to use Skype, we can check each other what we daily do. If I want to see my family’s face, I can see by using videophone. Even though I and my family live far away about 5500miles, we can check each other’ status whenever we want because of development of social media. Even if Facebook and MySpace, those kinds of social media have various advantages, it receives less attention than the bad effects of social media. The most serious problem of social media is addiction. One reporter described that â€Å"Text messaging is no longer the biggest t eenage obsession, and long gone are the days where the biggest worries for parents were celebrity crushes, massive phone bills from  ridiculously long phone calls and chocolate overloads. These teenage obsessions still exist, but in today’s day and age, and in comparison to the Facebook craze, they seem rather insignificant This huge issue also applied to me and my friends. When I came to Utah first, I had a hard time conversing with the people in this country. For learning English I decided to do Facebook rather than reading books or watching television, which is effective but not fun method. Because of Facebook’s worldwide connection, I was able to have more time and chance to communicate with my school friends. Soon, I could talk with Utah friends about private things and school work. As my relationship gets stronger, the time I spent doing Facebook extended, chat on-line and do applications already took a place in my life. I felt logging on Facebook was the best time ever in Utah since it helps me to learn language, to make friends, and to escape from boring life on abroad. But, the problem began with doing Facebook actively. My primary work of the d ay was doing Facebook. I preferred doing Facebook more than any other important work, including doing homework, exercising, sleeping, and even going to school. When I realized there was a problem, it was after I was addicted to Facebook. With my cousin’s help I could get away from Facebook, the dangerous social network. But some of my friends are still suffering from a Facebook with addiction. Another thing is that some person becomes lonelier after using social media. Most people might think that because social media have a benefit that give more opportunity to people to have more interactions through social network, people can strengthen relationship with their friends by chatting and leaving comments on each other’s wall and even people could make new friends by online meeting. Opposed to their thoughts, it is not. According to interview with Dr. John Cacioppo, who is a professor in neuroscience at the University of Chicago, tells that â€Å"â€Å"You can end up online so much that you end up sacrificing face-to-face contact. Having 4000 friends on Facebook might make you feel that you have lots of friends, but you have no face-to-face contact. In that case, loneliness INCREASES (Johnson).† It is not possible to make real relationship if people do not meet face to face. The people who were not talkative and social would be worse. One of my friends could example of this. He was poor at interacting with friends, he could not participate in our conversation and if we initiated a conversation, he stepped behind and went to his place. After he started using social media, the number of interaction with friends decreased. And he even did not make new friends through social media and he became less social. It led him to feel more loneness and seriously he tried to suicide once. It was one of happening events around me result of using social media. It is a really serious problem in this society. It is related to human’s life. This big problem is not facing to us. In conclusion, although social media has lots of benefits that are attractive and helpful to us, it usually gives more harmful influences than good effects. Like an addiction and fraud advertising, it is not anymore a small problem that can be ignored. To make better future, it is really important to use social media carefully. All things are depended on you.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Refugees Culture Settlement

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3796 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Tags: Refugee Essay Did you like this example? Settlement Experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees in Trondheim, Norway Abstract This paper is a qualitative research project that explored the perspectives of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees on their resettlement in Trondheim Norway and considered aspects of their integration into Norwegian society. Integration is a multidimensional construct dealing with complex interrelated processes pertaining to societal participation that is, the ways in which migrants become part of the social, cultural, economic, and political spheres of the country of resettlement. This study did not discuss all perspectives of resettlement and integration. in contrast, this paper focuses mainly on the social and cultural aspects of this phenomenon. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Refugees Culture Settlement | Cultural Studies Dissertations" essay for you Create order Introduction Migration is a process that commences with the simple thought of moving, but it continues long after the individual arrives in her or his new home. The process is constrained by certain factors such as capital, immigration policy, and the existence of kinship networks. Individuals, who are able to overcome these constraints and decide to migrate, must overcome a new set of challenges upon arrival in the host county. These challenges include the need to adapt to a new labour market, use of a new language, and integration with the rest of society. Integration is a multidimensional construct dealing with complex interrelated processes pertaining to societal participation that is, the ways in which migrants become part of the social, cultural, economic, and political spheres of the country of resettlement (Bloch, 1997). This paper, however, focuses primarily on the social and cultural aspects of this phenomenon. Objective of the study Exploring the settlement experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil refuges in Trondheim Norway and considered aspects of their integration into Norwegian society. Research questions What factors influence and constrain the decision to immigrate to Norway? What features influence the communitys resettlement in Trondheim? What are the restrictions that Sri Lankan refugees face in process of integration into Norwegian Society? Theoretical frame work Integration is frequently described in terms of continuity versus change, continuity being synonymous with socio-cultural maintenance and change with integration (Carey-Wood at el 1995). For this study I adopted a framework proposed by Berry and Sam (1997) that views continuity and change as complimentary, rather than competing, processes. This framework considers maintenance of socio-cultural identity and the associated establishment of ties with the dominant society as joint criteria for successful integration. A variety of factors influence the integration process. One is the distance between the home and the host culture; the greater the cultural gap between the refugee and the country of relocation, the more difficult the integration process (Duke, 1996). Another determinant is generational status; The settlement of refugees in Britain indicate that the first generation of adult migrants largely preserve the features of culture and lifestyle of their country of origin (Carey-Wood at el 1995); it is the second generation that more readily accepts the norms and cultural practices of the country of resettlement. The extent of migrants participation in mainstream culture also depends on structural factors within the society, including social and economic conditions and public policies that support their efforts in this direction (Duke, 1996). Refugees leave their homelands under great pressure, usually as a result of war, severe political or economic upheaval, or religious or ethnic persecution. They arrive in the host country after having endured the embarrassment and horrors of flight and, for some, prolonged stays in refugee camps. Refugees are not able to plan their migration in advance; consequently, they arrive in a host country unprepared for what they may encounter there. In addition, they must cope with the strain associated with sudden separation from, or loss of, family along with the challenges of integration into the country of resettlement. The dimensions of race, gender and the forms of patriarchy in their home and host countries compound their situation. The Tamil migration is largely made up of refugees and homelandless people. According to UNHCR, between 1980 1999, 256, 307 people of Sri Lankan origin applied for asylum in Europe, one of the top ten groups of asylum seekers during this period (Cheran, 2003). Large numbers of Tamils have been granted some form of residence status in their host country. Tamil migration consists of an estimated 700,000 people settled in Canada, Europe, India and Australia (Cheran, 2003) in which, some of them have migrated to Norway. Most live in Oslo, which is the capital city of Norway, and other small cities like Trondheim. It is likely therefore that one in every four Sri Lankan Tamils now lives in the migration. There is a long tradition of Tamil migration from the Jaffna peninsula. Elite and dominant groups among the Tamils of Sri Lanka have had a long history of temporary emigration for education and employment, usually to Britain and Malaysia. Sustaining a society under stress, strain and displacement has been the most important function of the Tamil Diaspora (Cheran, 2003). Almost, Sri Lankan Tamils are racial and ethnic largest second minorities in Norway ( To a certain extend, Tamil, those who are living in Norway have been affected by the changes in social structure. These changes included distance in social kinship, different language, and social behavior and so on. These and other restrictions in day to day constitute a significant hardship for Sri Lankan Tamil families. Role of Sri Lankan Tamil men and women in Sri Lankan Tamils culture Sri Lankan Tamil is a patriarchal society with its roots in Hinduism. The basis of Sri Lankan Tamil social structure is the kin-family system, which is traced through patrilineal (through fathers) descent. Social identity in Sri Lanka is tied to kin, race, religion and caste. But religious category is not part of the social meaning and everyday interactions in Sri Lankan Tamil culture. Hinduism teachings permeate the consciousness of Sri Lankan Tamils, providing guidance in a certain aspects of daily living, including roles and expectations for men and women. Usually, men are the head of the family and who generate income for maintain the cost of living and other expenses of family. Women are generally regarded as subordinate to men and their primary role is to care for husbands, children and members of their extended families. Sri Lankan Tamils and identity documents When Sri Lankan Tamils fled the country, many did not take their identity documents with them because of uptight departures, and intensive fighting. Few people were able to take their documents, only to have the authenticity of these papers questioned by immigration officials. And because of conditions back in Sri Lanka, there was no longer a centralized government office from which they could request new documents or have existing ones verified. This situation caused problems for the many Sri Lankans who sought refuge in Norway, where identity documents are normally required for refugees seeking to become landed immigrants (i.e., permanent residents). Because so many Sri Lanka refugees could not produce documents deemed satisfactory by Citizenship and Immigration Norway. Undocumented refugees from Sri Lanka have been required to wait for more than a year after refugee determination before proceeding with applications for permanent residency (UDI Norway). This means it takes long time before they become permanent residents Methodology In this paper, describe a qualitative research project that explored the settlement experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil refuges in Trondheim Norway and considered aspects of their integration into Norwegian society. In depth and Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data that demonstrate these different issues in detail. In-depth interviews are the suitable method to use because they offer participants the chance to explain their experiences and the meanings they attach to those experiences (Limb and Dwyer 2001, Patton, 1990). A semi-structured interview format (Hay, 2000) or what Patton (1990) refers to as the general interview guide approach was used. In this style of interview a list of key questions or issues, but not an inflexible, standardized set of questions, is established in advance. This interview format enables the investigator to ensure that certain topics are addressed by all research participants, which is essential for comparison, while still maintaining the flow of spontaneous conversation, the flexibility to pursue unanticipated topics broached by the participant, the option of probing respondents for additional information, and the ability to modify questions to suit a particular individual (Patton, 1990). The interview guides is used for each individual. Snow-ball sampling was used to recognize research participants that presented information-rich cases, (Patton, 1990). Contrary to random sampling, where the researcher requests a representative sample that can be generalized to a distinct population, snow-ball sampling allows the investigator to identify those individuals that will give the richest information for the study, information that cannot be obtained as well from other potential participants (Patton, 1990). When I began research on Sri Lankan Tamil in Trondheim, Norway, I had little knowledge about the community or the sort of information that was available. I soon found that there was scarce literature addressing immigration of this community. In order to obtain detailed information about the experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil living in Trondheim, I had to look for primary source information. I conducted two in-depth interviews which lasted half an hour (more or less), and four shorter interviews (ranging between 10-15 minutes), all of which were based on the same format. The reason I chose a combination of these three (primary literatures, in-depth and semi structured interviews) was so that I could have information on several levels. The basic format provided a sample of general information and experiences, through which I could identify patterns within the community. The short interviews allowed me to explore immigrant situations and their own perceptions in some detail. The in-depth interviews paint a more comprehensive picture of the immigrant experience, including the reasons for leaving Sri Lanka, as well as their changing experiences and attitudes throughout their resettlement in Norway. Surveys would not have been able to capture all that I wanted to find. Unfortunately, time constraints limited the number of in-depth interviews that could be conducted. The circumstances behind their migration differ from person to person, and it requires separate analysis. I did not interview individuals who participate in the temporary worker program (for instance, student with temporary visa). The individuals who were interviewed are Sri Lankan Tamil who lived in Trondheim for more than two years. The sample included individuals aged nineteen to individuals in their sixties. Individuals who were interviewed are residents and citizens of Norway. My selection of interviewees takes transnationalism into consideration rather than the traditional definition of immigration. Thus respondents included individuals who planned to stay in Trondheim for several years to live, work, study, and become a part of Trondheims social structure. Respondents are from different backgrounds, states of origin in Sri Lanka, age; and entered Norway by using different policies such as asylum seekers, student visa, and family reunion and so on. They also now live in different locations throughout the Trondheim. Both men and women were interviewed. The respondents were found in part through a snow-ball sample and partly through the use of my own Sri Lankan Tamil friends network in Trondheim. The interviewees were assured anonymity. All interviews were conducted in Tamil. The interviews were conducted in Hindu Kovil (Temple) which is situated closed to Tiller Trondheim, coffee shop and some other places. The interviews were effective in supplying information regarding perceptions of what was necessary and difficult about resettlement in Trondheim. The lack of structure in the community, the reasons behind this situation, as well as why they chose the Trondheim. Findings Consequences of Undocumented Sri Lanka Refugee Status In Norway, the rights and privileges of all refugees are restricted in a number of ways. The problem for undocumented Sri Lanka refugees is that the restrictions remain in place for at least more than a year. This prolonged period of limitations on rights and privileges poses serious problems. People in this study discussed four topics related to their refugee status: restrictions on family reunification and mobility access to postsecondary education, access to employment, Concerns about childrens education Cultural Norms and Differences in Childrearing Practices and their perspectives on the regulations. Restrictions on Family Reunification and Mobility In Sri Lanka, people were adapted to living amongst their extended families. When they fled the country, however, their families were torn apart. The most of the people in this study had children, wives, and mothers and fathers living Sri Lanka and overseas. Refugees in Norway are prohibited from sponsoring family members until they have become landed immigrants. This regulation was very distressing to the refugees, because they knew they would have to wait at least five years before they could reunite with family members. Refugees are also not eligible for Norwegian travel documents. If they leave Norway for any reason, they are not allowed to return. This means they may not visit family members living in other countries. In times of family emergency, Norwegian Immigration sometimes makes exceptions for refugees with acceptable identity documents, but this option is not open to undocumented Sri Lanka refugees. They are not even allowed to travel overseas to visit a relative who is seriously ill or attend a funeral for a relative who has passed away. The following story was a typical one: The greatest problem I am facing is that three of my own children are in Sri Lanka. I am two years in Norway and for two years I havent seen my family. If I could have [my landed immigrant] document I could have visited them or sponsored them so that they could have joined me. My biggest disappointment is that I cannot sponsor my family. Restrictions on Access to Postsecondary Education Refugees are guaranteed full access to elementary and secondary education by Norwegian government. But they are not eligible for educational loans and scholarships until they get permanent resident permit. Therefore, most are cut off from postsecondary education. One of the young man expressed his frustration on this restriction Norway has recognized us as refugees, given us food and shelter and tried her best to assist us, but at the same time she has deprived us from what we need the most education. Our future depends on education. In addition, we have to wait for long time to continue our education since it takes time to issue permanent resident permit Therefore we loss courage to continue it further. Restrictions on Access to Employment Refugees can only get temporary work permits. This makes them ineligible for some jobs. Even when they are eligible, many employers are still reluctant to hire them because of lack of language fluency. One informant said he was hired for a cleaning job, and excited when his employer found out he was a refugee. The informant asked me, If you dont have your landed papers, how can I trust you? Refugees are not eligible for bank loans and even internet bank facility. This makes it difficult for them to start self employment. A person who had been in business in Sri Lanka explained: If I had the proper documents and a loan to open my own business, I could be an independent person. They [Immigration officials] told me to stay at home and wait for their subsidies. That is not what I came here for. Because of the restrictions on education and work, the few people who had professional careers in Sri Lanka could not get work in their fields or upgrade their skills. One interviewer in this situation described his frustration: I am a professional teacher with 7 years of work experience. Since I came to Norway, I find myself absolutely denied the opportunity to work in my profession or to go to college and continue my education. Concerns about childrens education Sri Lankan children are faced with overwhelming problems in schools in Norway. Many have had little education because of the upheaval in Sri Lanka and the time spent in refugee camps. Lack of Norwegian language proficiency is another problem. One mother explained: Even if the child has a good educational background, with a strong base in math and other subjects, still he wouldnt be able to follow along in class because of the language. Language is the key factor, and it is only when the child has a strong language base that he can catch up to his or her classmates. This issue is complicated by the fact that many Sri Lanka parents also face the same language barrier and cannot provide the needed educational support at home. Other difficulties were related to differences in cultural norms and expectations between Sri Lankan and Norwegian schools. Certain behaviours those are acceptable in Norwegian schools that are unacceptable in Sri Lankan schools. Likewise, behaviours that are rewarded in Sri Lankan schools may be viewed negatively here. Cultural Norms and Differences in Childrearing Practices Some parents raised issues about the negative influences of contemporary culture of their children. They were uncomfortable with some of the behaviours that their children had developed since their arrival in Norway. One mother gave this example: Our children use some words, for example.., and sometimes they make bad signals. These are bad things that are accepted here, but according to our culture, they are considered to be avoided. Cultural differences in disciplinary practices formed another major topic of discussion. Sri Lankan strongly believes that children need discipline to learn respect, good manners, and good behaviour. The parents in my study were aware that some common methods of discipline in Sri Lankan culture, such as pristine, are not acceptable in Norway. In school, children are instructed to call police if they believe they are being verbally or physically abused. This threat of calling to police has become a weapon for Sri Lankan children to hold over their parents. Some women said that their children were becoming proud and disrespectful because of this. They also worried that the Childrens Aid Society might take their children away (they pointed out a very good example that has happened recently). The parents were concerned about their teenage children, who had graduated from high school, but waiting for jobs. Without school or work to keep them occupied, many spent their days in local interact, and their mothers worried that they might be drawn to drug and alcohol use. Finally, the women recognized that their roles and influence as parents were changing, as their children became more a part of Norwegian culture. They worried that some children might abandon their Sri Lankan culture heritage altogether. Discussion and Conclusion The people said they were grateful to the Norwegian government for accepting them as refugees. They were pleased to have left behind a culture of war for food, shelter, and safety. Nevertheless, everyday life was very stressful for them at the beginning, and feelings of anxiety, depression, and extreme nervousness were common. Some of them were still feeling the effects of stress due to the disturbance of the war in Sri Lanka, their flight out of the country, and their detention in refugee camps before their arrival in Norway. Many were sorrowful over the break up of their families and their inability to reunite with them. The stress of being in Norway while husbands or wife, children, parents were still overseas was a difficult burden for them to bear. Abbott (1997) points out that separation in the family unit of involuntary migrants greatly disturbs the most basic relationship network (Abbott, 1997). Results of other studies indicate that prolonged waits for family reunification, such as the men in my study were experiencing, are unfavorable to the integration process (Bloch, 2000). Another factor that weighed on the Sri Lankan Tamil refugees was the loss of their homes, culture, country, lifestyle, friends, and family, and their need to mourn these losses. Beside with this grieving process were the stresses of learning a new language and adapting to a culture with values that were, in some instances, in indirect conflict with traditional Hinduism values, attitudes and norms. The refugees difficulties in reconciling these contradictions demonstrate the importance of the distance between the home and host cultures as a determinant of successful or unsuccessful integration (Bloch 1997). Difficulties with Norske and problems with intercultural communication disadvantaged the Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in their dealings with government officials, teachers, and landlords and so on. Problems such as unemployment and constant worries about the well being of their families were other significant factors. Yet, poor Norske proficiency, the obstacles on secondary and postsecondary education and limited employment opportunities made it hard for the refugees to get jobs and integrate into the economic sphere. Recommendations Reducing waiting period of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees to get permanent resident permit Developing educational programs and services to meet the needs of Sri Lankan students and their families. Crating some job opportunities for refuges to get jobs easily The Sri Lankan community have to establish separate schools where Sri Lankan Tamil children would be taught the Hinduism religion, and traditional behaviour and cultural practices in addition to their regular academic program (actually, there is a Tamil school in Trondheim to teach Tamil culture and Religion ). Reference Abbott, L. (1997). 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